The vibrant green of Turkey's lush, humid Black Sea Coast surprises those who imagine the country to be nothing but barren steppe. From the European border with Bulgaria to the Georgian border, dense pine forests cover the mountaintops while lushvegetation and bountiful crops grow in the lower elevations and valleys. Along the coastline, mile after mileof beautiful uncrowded beaches offer sun, swimming and relaxation. In the springtime, delicate wild-flower blossoms carpet the rolling meadows of the eastern hills. The wooden houses in fishing villages and mountain hamlets alike preserve in the indigenous and traditional wood architectural styles. The humid climate and fertile soil encourage cultivation of a variety of produce; including tea, tobacco, corn and hazelnuts. Archaeological excavations have uncovered evidence of the regions earliest inhabitants in the early Bronze Age settlements at Ikiztepe in Samsun Province. The higher slopes of the verdant Black Sea region are thick with beech, oak, maple, alder, Scots Pine, and Oriental Spruce, while the narrow coastal strip and lower slopes are used to grow tea, hazelnuts, flax, maize, cherries and plums. All of these plants are suited to a temperate climate with plenty of rain -- never a problem in the Black Sea region. The Hittites, Miletians, Phrygians and, according to Homer, (Women Warriors lived near Terme - Thermedon river) the Amazons all colonized parts of the coast. Alexander the Great in his world conquest also brought the region under his sovereignty. Eventually, it was incorporated into the Roman and Byzantine Empires. The 15th century saw the greater part of the area come under the Ottoman rule of Sultan Mehmet II. The Black Sea is easily accessible to tourists and provides a wide range of hotels and restaurants at a variety of price ranges. The city of Trabzon is surrounded by Rize in the east, Giresun in the west, Gümüşhane in the south and the Black Sea in the north. Its length towards the east-west direction is 100 km. and width 46 km. The area is mountainous and volcanic. The high mountains stretching from shore to the inner regions reach a height of 400-500 metres. The southern boundary of the city ends with hills of 2000-3000 metres. These hills start from Coruh River in the east and end in Ordu-Samsun direction. Trabzon, with its hills and steep versans and streams that join the sea, has a rough structure. The streams taking their their source from the mountain series of the south of the city has divided it into dense and deep valleys. Do to the ascending structure of the area to the north, Trabzon is deprived of the wind coming from the south. Because of the masses of vapour above the sea cannot reach beyond the mountains, it turns into rain. Trabzon, having an uneven and mountainous structure, its mountains and hills are as follows: Zigana Mountain 2500, Çagilgol 3603, Taskesenkaya 2811, Karakapan 2550, Oruz 2386, Fiyanoy 1919, Madur 1732, Kacalak 2656, Sermilyas 1400 metres are within the boundaries of Macka, Of and Surmene. Karadag 1880, Karaabdal 2150, Visera 2352, Sis 2161 metres are within the boundaries of Akcaabat and Salpazarı. The great majority of the people in the region earn their living from the land. The most important feature of the agriculture in this region is that corn is grown in the coastal parts of this region rather than wheat, which is the main grain type in the other regions. In fact, more than one-third of corn production in Turkey is realized in the Black Sea Region. Wheat is sown mostly on the plains beyond the coastal mountains. Barley is also an important crop in the region. Rice is cultivated in the Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak deltas, and at the Boyabat section of the Gokirmak Valley and at the Tosya section of the Devrez Valley. Beans lead in leguminous plants production and sugar beets lead in the production of industrial plants. Other important crops in the region are potatoes, onions, sunflowers and hemp. Tea which is grown only in the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey, is also among the most important crops in the region. Hazelnuts are the main fruit of the Black Sea Region, especially, in the eastern sections. The Black Sea coastal strip is covered with hazelnut trees. The hazelnut trees, which are sparse in the Rize section, become denser in the Trabzon section and are the densest in Giresun and Ordu Provinces. Apple growing is also considerable in the region, and in recent years, fruits such as kiwi and avocado have started to be grown. Samsun is an important port in the Eastern Black Sea Region. Along with its natural beauties it also has a reputation as an industrial city. Samsun, at the same time, has taken its place in history as the spot where Ataturk first landed to start the War of Independence on the lands of Anatolia. The sun which rose in Samsun on 19 May 1919 was the herald of the Turkey of today. The monument of Ataturk on a rearing horse is the most famous and splendid monument in the city. The Ataturk Museum and Library have exhibits from the National Struggle. Haci Hatun, Pazar, and Yali Mosques are the main architectural works of the Ottoman Period. Bafra, located to the west of Samsun, is an important tobacco center. Bafra is also known for its caviar and thermal springs. Ikiztepe, located to the northeast of Bafra, is an important archaeological excavation center remaining from the early Bronze Age. Ordu is a typical Black Sea town covered with hazelnut groves which extend for kilometers within the greenery. It is known for its holiday towns on the shores and the high plateaus in the mountains. The Cambasi High Plateau, with an altitude of 1250 meters, and the Keyfalan Plateau, with an altitude of 2000 meters, are situated to the south of the city. A "Golden Hazelnut" Festival is organized in Ordu every year in the autumn. Fatsa, Bolaman, Yalikoy and Persembe, which are to the east of the city, are holiday towns famous for their natural beauties and beaches. The Yason Church remaining from the Byzantine Period, is located at Cape Cam (Cape Yason), which is situated between Persembe and Yalikoy.