In the Hittite New Kingdom, or Empire Period (ca.1400-c.1190 BCE; from Amenhotep III to the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty), the city expanded to the south. A wall was built from the great hill down along the western valley, which significantly strengthened the fortification system, especially at the highest section. Here, a deep moat and high earth rampart protected the city against the hills to the south, while the defenders were aided with a corbelled tunnel (Yerkapu, or "Ground Gate"), a paved glacis (defensive slope), and flights of stairs. The decorated gates were also built at this time, including the King's Gate in the southeast and the Lion Gate in the southwest. Although temples were supposed to have existed in the Old Kingdom, the only ruins remaining date from the New. Four belong to the upper city section added at this time. In the lower city is the Great Temple with its many subsidiary buildings. The acropolis on the hill was rebuilt in monumental style as well. In the 13th Century BCE (Nineteenth Dynasty) the city wall was further extended across the gorge to complete enclose the great hill. Reliefs and bulidings were built at the rock sanctuary called Yazilikaya, about a mile from the city on the slopes of the eastern mountains. The city was destroyed around 1190 BCE (beginning of Twentieth Dynasty) and remained empty until the Phrygians captured the region in the 8th century BCE. The settlement then lasted through Hellenistic times, when the Celtic Galatians arrived.
Special thanks to Bahar who created a perfect program for us.
Thanks for encouraging us to do hot air balloon ride in Cappadocia as that will be a special memory and thank making that Turkish kebab meal we loved it all.
Donna Michael Williams
Sidney - Australia