Exchange slips: The exchange slips for the conversion of foreign currency into Turkish lira should be kept, since you may be required to show these when reconverting your Turkish lira back into foreign currency, and when taking souvenirs out of the country (to prove that they have been purchased with legally exchanged foreign currency).
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Ankara - Cappadocia - Anitkabir (Ataturk Mousoleum)
Located in an imposing position in the Anittepe quarter of the city stands the Mausoleum of Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Turkish Republic. Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural ideas and remains unsurpassed as an accomplishment of modern Turkish architecture. There is a museum housing a superior wax statue of Ataturk:writings, letters and items belonging to Ataturk,as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and the establishment of the republic.(Anitkabir is open everyday, and the museum every day except Mondays. During the summer, there is a light and sound show in the evening). The first stage to start the construction, was the expropriation of the land after deciding on the Anitkabir project. Actual construction of Anitkabir commenced on 9 October 1944 with a splendid ceremony by laying the first stone of the foundation. Construction of Anitkabir took nine years in four stages. First stage of the Construction: 1944 - 1945: First stage construction, comprising the excavation and the construction of the retaining wall of Lions Road, started 9 October 1944 and completed in 1945. Second Stage of the Construction: 1945 - 1950: Second stage construction, comprising the mausoleum and the auxiliary buildings surrounding the ceremonial ground, started on 29 September 1945 and completed on 8 August 1950. At this stage, due to the problems related to the mausoleum’s masonry and concrete structure foundations, some revisions had to be made. At the end of 1947 the excavation and insulation of the mausoleum foundation was completed and the steel reinforcements for the new 11 m. high concrete foundation, capable of resisting any king of settlement of the ground, had come to near completion. Entrance towers, most part of the road network, orchard installations, plantation works and main part of the irrigation systems were also completed at this stage. Third Stage of the Construction: 1950: The third stage was comprising the construction of the roads leading to the mausoleum, Lions’ alley, ceremonial ground, the mausoleum’s upper-level stone pavement, grand stairs, putting the big tomb stone in its place and installation of electricity, plumbing and heating systems. Fourth Stage of the Construction: 1950 - 1953: The fourth stage was comprising the construction of the Hall of Honours pavement, vaults under side linings, and Hall of Honours perimeter stone profiles and fringe decorations. The fourth stage had started on 20 November 1950 and completed on 1 September 1953. The Anitkabir project originally had a vaulted ceiling above the mausoleum carried by the perimeter columns. On 4 December 1951 the Government inquired the architects of the possibility of shortening the time of construction by lowering the 28 m. high ceiling of the Hall of Honours. After studying the subject, architects concluded that it was possible to cover the ceiling with a reinforced concrete slab instead of a stone vault. This change had reduced the weight of the ceiling and, therefore, certain risks were eliminated further. Easy to process porous travertine with various colours used on external cladding of the concrete surfaces and marble used for the inside surfaces of the mausoleum. White travertine that was used for sculpture groups, for lions figures and the mausoleum colons, is brought in from Pinarbasi town of Kayseri and white travertine used inside the towers is brought in from Polatli and Malikoy. Red and black travertine used for paving the ceremonial ground and floors of towers were brought in from Kayseri, Bogazkopru region and yellow travertine brought in from Cankiri, Eskipazar was used for building the Victory reliefs, Hall of Honours external walls and perimeter colons of the ceremonial ground. Red, black and cream colour marbles used on the floor of the Hall of Honours were brought from Hatay, Adana and Canakkale, and for the internal walls, tiger-hide patterned marble from Afyon and green marble brought from Bilecik. Monolithic tomb stone weighing 40 tons was brought from Osmaniye, Adana and the white marble covering sides of the sarcophagus were from Afyon. ANITKABIR'S ARCHITECTURAL PROPERTIES: The period of the Turkish architecture, in between 1940 and 1950, is known as “The Era of Second National Architecture”. During this period mostly monumental, symmetry oriented, cut stone clad buildings had been built. Anitkabir carries the same characteristics of this era. Besides those characteristics, Anitkabir also has Seljuk and Ottoman architectural characteristics and ornamentation features. As in the example of external walls and eaves all around the towers are the Seljuk style borders, known as “saw teeth” in Seljuk cut stone art. Cut stone ornamentation, namely passion flower and ‘rosette’ used in some other parts of Anitkabir (Mehmetcik Tower, Museum Administration) can be found in Seljuk and Ottoman architecture as well. With all its qualities, Anitkabir is one of the finest examples of its era, covering approximately 750.000 square metres, it is divided into two parts as “Peace Park” and “Monument Block” A- PEACE PARK: Inspired by Atatürk's famous phrase “Peace at home, peace in World”, Anitkabir rises above in ‘Peace Park’ formed with plants received from all over the world and the country. Many plants and trees are brought in from Afghanistan, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, USA, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia. Today, in ‘Peace Park,’ there are 48.500 trees and ornamental plants of 104 different species and origins. B- MONUMENT BLOCK: Anitkabir monument Block has three sections. 1- Lions Alley 2- Ceremonial Ground 3- Mausoleum Ataturk’s honoured corpse is buried in the earth in the ground floor of the mausoleum. The grave room is situated right under the symbolic tomb stone placed in the first floor of the mausoleum. It has an octagonal plan in Seljuk and Ottoman architectural style, and its pyramidal ceiling is decorated with mosaics in geometrical patterns. Floor and walls are paved and clad with red, black and white marbles. In the middle of the grave room is the marble sarcophagus positioned towards the south, in direction of Mecca. The brass cups containing the soils from all provinces and from the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are placed around the marble sarcophagus. When entered from Tandogan Gate and by the road through the Peace Park you can reach at the 26 steps high ground stairs at the head of the Lions Alley. Independence and Freedom Towers are situated at both sides of this stair facing each other. Within the Anitkabir site there are ten towers situated in a symmetrical arrangement. They are named to symbolize the great ideals that influenced the creation of our nation and the state. The towers are similar in terms of planing and structure. The towers are rectangular, close to a square, with 12x14x7.20 m. dimensions and have pyramidal roofs. Bronze arrow heads are placed at the top of the roofs as in the old Turkish traditional tent. Geometric ornamentations, inspired by the old Turkish kilim patterns, are superimposed in fresco technique. Also inside walls of the towers contains a composition relevant to the name of the tower and inscription of Ataturk’s word’s
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